June 28, 2016
Back at work after a hiatus occupied with grading and other necessary tasks.
In March I gave a short presentation at the Wesleyan Philosophical Society. In it I talked about the way in which my church (the Church of the Nazarene) and many other Christians have enthusiastically embraced a view of the Bible that goes back at least as far as Galileo.
Among other things, Galileo is famous (among people who read such things) for an essay
(the Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany) in which he argued that the purpose of the Bible is strictly to reveal the way to salvation. Put differently, it is not the Bible’s purpose to reveal anything about the natural world. Galileo cleverly used a metaphor to get his point across–God has spoken in two books, the Bible (for knowledge about salvation) and the book of nature (for knowledge about the world).
Judging from my experience in the dialog between science and theology (a curiously one-sided dialog), my sense is that many Christian thinkers are attracted to Galileo’s way of dividing the intellectual pie. This embrace is due to the perception that too much unnecessary controversy between the theological and scientific communities has ensued because of faulty assumptions about the Bible. Fundamentalists, in particular, are known for their trust that the Bible delivers to us accurate knowledge about everything, at least everything mentioned in the Bible.
For example, there is a physician, Dr. Mel Mulder (http://www.muldermel.com/author.html), who has a radio show (“Beyond Intelligent Design”) whose tagline is that the Bible is our only source of truth. This is farther than many Fundamentalists would go, suggesting as it does that the sciences are not at all sources of truth. Nonetheless, most Fundamentalists would say that the results of scientific study are valid only as long as they do not contradict the Bible. The assumption is that the Bible does indeed reveal to us certain vital truths about the natural world. If scientific theory disagrees with the Bible, too bad for science.
Galileo thus provided Christians who are anxious to preserve the autonomy of science with an alternative to Fundamentalism. Instead of assuming that God lodged truths about nature in the Bible, many, perhaps most Christian thinkers, have embraced Galileo’s division-of-labor approach. We go to the Bible if we want to know about salvation; we go scientifically to nature if we want to know about the world.
Adopting Galileo’s view carves out a space in the anxious world of Christian universities, a space that, in principle if not always in practice, allows scientists to go about their work without ecclesiastical interference. This space allows worried university administrators to permit more-or-less untrammeled scientific teaching and research with a good conscience–at least until scientists annoyingly encroach on recognizably theological topics such as the soul and ethics. Nonetheless, as long as Christian scientists abide by the rules of the Galilean game, the only people complaining are Fundamentalists, who reject the game. The existence of Fundamentalists, however, is actually a blessing in disguise for Christian universities. They enable the Christian university’s scientists and administrators to engage in self-congratulation for bring broad-minded and enlightened (compared to Fundamentalists) and also authentically Christian (compared to those afflicted with liberal theology).
Oddly both Galileo and Fundamentalism have proven to be blessings for the Christian university.
Although it is not uncommon for scientists today to play up Galileo’s controversy with the Renaissance papacy, the truth is that he laid the foundation of much contemporary Christian thinking about how faith and theology relate to the sciences.
However, I for one am not happy with Galileo’s depiction of the Bible. In particular, the notion that the Bible is strictly and only about salvation seems questionable.
However, I’m typing this book on scripture and need to maintain momentum, so I will continue this journal entry on Galileo shortly.